The Enlightenment was cosmopolitan in its effort to spread the light of reason, but from the very beginning of the age there were nationalistic tendencies to be seen in varying shades.
Chinese nationalism The awakening of nationalism across Asia helped shape the history of the continent. The key episode was the decisive defeat of Russia by Japan indemonstrating the military superiority of non-Europeans in a modern war.
The defeat which quickly led to manifestations of a new interest in nationalism in China, as well as Turkey, What roles did religion and nationalism Persia.
It was a nationwide protest movement about the domestic backwardness of China and has often been depicted as the intellectual foundation for Chinese Communism. According to historian Patricia Ebrey: Nationalism, patriotism, progress, science, democracy, and freedom were the goals; imperialism, feudalism, warlordism, autocracy, patriarchy, and blind adherence to tradition were the enemies.
Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese, how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations. African nationalism and History of Africa Kenneth Kaundaan anti-colonial political leader from Zambiapictured at a nationalist rally in colonial Northern Rhodesia now Zambia in In the s the European powers divided up almost all of Africa only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.
They ruled until after World War II when forces of nationalism grew much stronger. In the s and s the colonial holdings became independent states. The process was usually peaceful but there were several long bitter bloody civil wars, as in Algeria,  Kenya  and elsewhere.
Across Africa nationalism drew upon the organizational skills that natives learned in the British and French and other armies in the world wars. It led to organizations that were not controlled by or endorsed by either the colonial powers not the traditional local power structures that were collaborating with the colonial powers.
Nationalistic organizations began to challenge both the traditional and the new colonial structures and finally displaced them. Leaders of nationalist movements took control when the European authorities exited; many ruled for decades or until they died off.
These structures included political, educational, religious, and other social organizations. In recent decades, many African countries have undergone the triumph and defeat of nationalistic fervor, changing in the process the loci of the centralizing state power and patrimonial state.
From toit was controlled by white Afrikaner nationalists focused on racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid. The black nationalist movement fought them until success was achieved by the African National Congress in and Nelson Mandela was elected President.
As the Ottoman Empire declined and the Middle East was carved up by the Great Powers of Europe, Arabs sought to establish their own independent nations ruled by Arabs rather than foreigners.
Syria was established in ; Transjordan later Jordan gradually gained independence between and ; Saudi Arabia was established in ; and Egypt achieved gradually gained independence between and The Arab League was established in to promote Arab interests and cooperation between the new Arab states.
Parallel to these efforts was the Zionist movement which emerged among European Jews in the 19th century. Beginning in Jews, predominantly from Europe, began emigrating to Ottoman Palestine with the goal of establishing a new Jewish homeland.
The effort culminated in the declaration of the State of Israel in As this move conflicted with the belief among Arab nationalists that Palestine was part of the Arab nation, the neighboring Arab nations launched an invasion to claim the region.
The invasion was only partly successful and led to decades of clashes between the Arab and Jewish nationalist ideologies. Post-Communism[ edit ] There was a rise in extreme nationalism after the collapse of communism in the s. When communism fell, it left many people with no identity.
The people under communist rule had to integrate, and found themselves free to choose. Given free choice, long dormant conflicts rose up and created sources of serious conflict.
In his article Jihad vs. McWorld, Benjamin Barber proposed that the fall of communism will cause large numbers of people to search for unity and that small scale wars will become common; groups will attempt to redraw boundaries, identities, cultures and ideologies.
Academic Steven Berg felt that at the root of nationalist conflicts is the demand for autonomy and a separate existence. The national census numbers for a ten-year span — measured an increase from 1. Within Yugoslavia, separating Croatia and Slovenia from the rest of Yugoslavia is an invisible line of previous conquests of the region.
Croatia and Slovenia to the northwest were conquered by Catholics or Protestants, and benefited from European history; the Renaissance, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and are more inclined towards democracy. In the s the leadership of the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests at the expense of other territories.
In Croatia, there was almost a split within the territory between Serbs and Croats so any political decision would kindle unrest, and tensions could cross the territories adjacent; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Political organizations were not able to deal successfully with such diverse nationalism. Within the territories the leadership could not compromise.
To do so would create a winner in one ethnic group and a loser in another, raising the possibility of a serious conflict.What Role did the enlightenment play in making political revolutions and rebellions possible. How did religion influence nationalism.
CH Very few but some rebellions were religious based AP WORLD PERIOD 5. 58 terms. Industrialization and Global Capitalism. 23 terms.
Study Questions: Ch Socrates went against common religion, influenced social roles and people, and was the founder of the Socratic Method. Religious opinions affected Socrates’ life a great deal.
Religious opinions affected Socrates’ life a great deal. Islam religion in the hands of the Arab nations has turned into a tool of Arab nationalism and xenophobia (see over a million pages in the internet on the subject of Islam and Arab Nationalism).
In the past five centuries, many non-Arab nations have adopted Islam as the official state religion. Nationalism was very important as regards to the unification of Italy. It played various roles which led to success of the Italian unification, which means that nationalism is the main reason the unification of Italy occurred/5(1).
What roles did religion and nationalism play in the Belgian Revolution of ?
Nergiz De Baere FYE: Legacy of the Mediterranean Sonam Singh In world politics, Belgium is not a powerful player. The religion itself is not to be blamed but it is what the nobles and priests did under the banner of religion that is to be condemned.
The Christian rulers of that time were known to be extremely intolerant which resulted in the persecution of religious and ethnic minorities in France.