Helping you understand the Word of God, free from the traditions of men. We can use the model of a stage play to teach us how to better interpret the Bible. When you are watching the play, there are three distinct aspects or concept areas to consider.
This touches the more fundamental question of how the social sciences should go about exploring such a highly complex and elusive issue as organized crime.
At the same time I try to avoid the intricacies of the philosophical debate on the nature, purpose and value of scientific models. Models, this much is clear, are representations of reality, though on a lower level of complexity.
But there is some controversy on what exactly models should do and how meaningful they can really be. In a way I side-step this debate by, first, briefly reviewing three key works that represent the prevailing convention in the organized crime literature on what a "model of organized crime" is supposed to be.
Then I will turn to a general classification of models in the social sciences which distinguishes between causal and analytical models and which I find quite helpful, and I will argue for adopting an analytical model as the most appropriate conceptual framework for further research on organized crime.
All three "models" originally referred to the American Cosa Nostra. The "hierarchical model" pertains to the official view of the Cosa Nostra as a nationwide bureaucratic organizational entity Cressey The "patron-client model", represented by the works of Joe Albini and Francis and Liz Iannire-conceptualizes the Cosa Nostra as a web of asymmetric ties embedded in local or ethnic networks, whereas the "enterprise model", proposed by Dwight C.
Smithcenters around economic activities and the primacy of market forces over group structures. Halstead distinguishes different "models" not only by the underlying conception of the nature of organized crime but also by specific social conditions that are assumed to be responsible for the emergence of one or the other manifestation of organized crime.
She distinguishes two broad categories, "group-focused models" and "economic models", and within these categories differentiates various "models" that emphasize particular aspects, for example, the structure, activities and social embeddedness of criminal groups.
Halstead highlights the explanatory power of these models with regard to factors that lead to or facilitate the emergence or shaping of organized crime phenomena on the micro or macro level. On the micro level Halstead discusses, for example, how illegal enterprises can be perceived as organizations influenced by internal and external stakeholders.
For example, in the market for an illegal commodity such as cannabis, these interests would include cannabis users, cannabis wholesalers, cannabis retailers, law enforcement policy makers, law enforcers, health policy makers, corrupt public officials, and other less obvious groups, such as the media.
The interaction between these constituencies and the relative power relationships between them will determine the nature of the illicit enterprise.
The multiple constituencies approach draws into focus the fact that agents that might have an impact on the structure and operation of illicit enterprise are not just those who gain directly from it.
Williams and Godson Williams and Godson take the discussion yet another step further by linking certain social conditions with certain manifestations of organized crime and these, in turn, with certain social consequences or impacts.
In their discussion of a methodology for anticipating "the further evolution of organized crime", Williams and Godson distinguish several potentially predictive "models" that emphasize causal relations between certain environmental conditions, certain manifestations of organized crime and certain outcomes.
Organized Crime as an Object of Study What the "models" identified by Albanese, Halstead and Williams and Godson have in common is a strong orientation to concrete events and settings. The "models" are largely constructed with specific manifestations of organized crime in mind that have emerged under specific historical and cultural conditions.
The quoted authors try to overcome the resulting limits in applicability by combining different approaches. However, these composite models, although they potentially touch a wide range of issues, still fall short of an overall framework that is designed to consistently analyze and compare phenomena across historical and cultural variations, because these composite models arrange and link phenomena more or less as if the only possible constellations are those defined by specific historical cases.
In contrast, when we speak of organized crime research as a process of creating a cumulative body of knowledge von Lampewe need a conceptual framework that allows for the empirical existence of any conceivable constellation of the phenomena that fall under the umbrella concept of organized crime, regardless of whether or not they resemble commonly known events or stereotypical imagery.
At this point, I think, I should briefly clarify my understanding of organized crime as the object of study. From a sociological perspective, such constructs cannot be accepted at face value.
Rather, it is the duty of the social sciences to define and categorize the underlying phenomena and to explore through empirical observation what intricate links exist that would justify placing all these diverse phenomena in one theoretical context.
This very basic idea about the meaning of sociological inquiry, I believe, constitutes an appropriate measuring rod for determining the suitability of a model for the study of organized crime.
Causal Models and Analytical Models In the following discussion I will use the term "model" in a narrow sense as proposed by sociologist Jonathan Turner He defines a model as "a diagrammatic representation of social events.
The diagrammatic elements of any model include: Turner distinguishes two essential types of models: Causal Model Figure 2: They tend to conceptualize organized crime, or one particular aspect of it, as a one-dimensional phenomenon varying along a spectrum from bad to worse. The "models" described by Halstead and Williams and Godson largely fall into this category.
A classical example Fig. This theoretical proposition can be depicted in a model comprising four elements: While interrelations are acknowledged in both directions between the model elements, in the last instance the purpose is to explain variations in the power and reach of organized crime in the sense of an ultimately unified organizational entity.
This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to account for variations in the manifestation or for different paths of development of organized crime. Analytical Models of Organized Crime In comparison with causal models, analytical modeling schemes have two advantages for the study of organized crime: Given the fragmentary nature of the current knowledge on organized crime, analytical models can be employed as heuristic devices that display aspects of interest and map connections between them either based on existing empirical findings or based on plausible assumptions.
Understood in this way, analytical models may form the starting point and a comprehensive framework for more systematic and better coordinated future research.Our presentation of the model of benefactor - client relations contains three major components: 1.
characteristics of patron - client relationship, 2. types of reciprocity which characterize the exchange between patron and client, and 3.
classification of what is exchanged in the relationship. 2 a: a person who engages the professional advice or services of another a lawyer's clients a personal trainer enjoyed the challenges of helping clients buff up their bodies.
— S. K. Parks. b: customer hotel clients a restaurant's clients. c: a person served by or utilizing the services of a social agency a welfare client.
This is a spectacular review, BJ. Its so thorough and detailed. Almost a manual. You even found and used the “Put patrons directly to patron pipeline” feature. At the end of this article, I outline two comprehensive study guides to help you learn Meteor properly.
The study guides are for both beginners and seasoned developers. The first study guide, which uses a book, a paid screencast, and some free online resources, teaches you how to build a sophisticated, modern social-media web application with Meteor. The main models are the patron-client model and the bureaucratic model.
The client-patron organization main goal is to gain profit and power while conducting any criminally illegal activity that they may require to do. THE ULTIMATE IN HOME CARE. Lifesprk is for those who choose to stay in control and refuse to retire on life.
Who value their vitality and demand the very best care and advocacy to help them live the healthiest, most independent life possible - something we call living a “sparked life.”.