Mobile The differences between English and German Introduction: German is spoken by about 95 million people worldwide, and is the official language of Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland. English and German both belong to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Europe, to Drama and theater arts in the German territories saw a proliferation of forms derived from the reception of various literary traditions.
Bymodern German drama came into its own, but the transition leading to that result was complex. Those forms and traditions that were discarded along the way constitute the story of early modern drama in Germany.
Important areas of German Studies include German linguistics with the structure of the German language, medieval language, and literature and ist specific historical contexts within the framework of German medieval studies and modern German literature (read and understand literary texts, and present the findings gained in a scientific form). In English the terms Germanistics or Germanics are sometimes used (mostly by Germans), but the subject is more often referred to as German studies, German language and literature, or German philology. Modern German studies is usually seen as a combination of two sub-disciplines: German linguistics and Germanophone literature studies. But no linguistics expert has sat us down and told us about either the basics of the subject or many of its astonishing highlights. Times, Sunday Times () I was all set to do a degree in languages and linguistics.
The German and english linguistics and fifteenth centuries saw dramatic forms linked to liturgical uses and ecclesiastical traditions. Oral rituals of the Latin mass were linked to the celebratory cycle of the Christian calendar, to the Christmas and Easter messages of birth, death, and salvation.
Dramatic enactment served as an entertaining vehicle reinforcing wondrous truths. The recovery in of plays in Latin modeled after those of the Roman playwright Terence c. Philipp Melanchthon's edition of Terence provided an authoritative textual base for both dramatic form and literary language and served as a catalyst for translation of the plays from Latin into Germanthereby assuring the spread of classical models.
Whether written in German or Latin, Schuldrama was a constant; theater in Germany remained nonprofessional until the eighteenth century. Martin Luther — was leery both of the diversions of medieval pageantry and the pre-Christian worldliness of Greek and Roman plays.
His mentor Melanchthon, however, convinced him of the efficacy of placing drama in the service of the Reformation. While some playwrights pilloried the Roman Catholic ChurchLuther encouraged the production of plays based on biblical sources.
Prodigal Son plays, for example, defined the exemplary Christian life grounded in the precepts of faith-alone theology, while Judith dramas portrayed heroic piety confronting blasphemous tyranny, Judith versus Holofernes representing the Lutheran versus the Roman Church.
Lutheran schoolmasters and pastors cranked out German-language plays, spreading a Protestant message to cultural centers notably Strasbourg and to most corners of the empire and Switzerland.
The Catholic religious orders, but especially Jesuit playwrights such as Jakob Bidermann and Jakob Masen, countered, producing Neo-Latin works, the theatricality of which influenced playwrights well into the seventeenth century.
The most prolific playwright of the sixteenth century was Hans Sachs — Often parodied because of his unrelenting German-language doggerel, the Nuremberg author absorbed classical and medieval literary and historical sources, authoring tragedies and comedies as well as 80 Fastnachtspiele.
Not only did he transmit a version of Terence's Eunuch or the medieval romance Tristan und Isolde to the German imagination, but his Fastnachtspiele toned down the blatant profanity of his predecessors, deploying the Shrovetide message of excess just prior to Lent firmly in the service of Reformation instruction.
During the late sixteenth century, German playwrights also derived inspiration from the Italian commedia dell'arte and from traveling troupes of English professional players who toured cities and princely courts throughout the empire.
The brand of theater was decidedly histrionic, focused more on slapstick action than on the word. Nicodemus Frischlin's Caminarius in the court-centered play Julius Redivivus was a lascivious commedia-type.
Duke Heinrich Julius von Braunschweig's braggart soldier in the courtly piece named for him, Vincentius Ladislauswas as indebted to Shakespearean and Italian models as to classical sources.
Each drama documents the derivative nature of German drama as well as the significance of princely court festival culture in the era; indeed, the first theater building in the empire was constructed by a Hessian prince for his court in Kassel — Comedy, as Cicero had written, was a mirror of laughable life, while tragedy ended sadly.
Such views were hardly complex or subtle, and with the variegated dramatic conventions competing for the German stage, what was lacking was a coherent theoretical base. The author was a culturally patriotic student of Italian Renaissance poetics who simply translated Julius Caesar Scaliger's — definitions verbatim into German.
Opitz's work became authoritative, spawning a host of learned theoretical publications. Playwrights after Opitz knew exactly what was expected of them and wrote accordingly.German dialects that differ substantially from standard German, not only in pronunciation but also in grammar, are found in regions of Germany, E France, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein; Lëtzeburgesch, an official language of Luxembourg, is a German dialect spoken by about , people there.
The Master’s degree programme in German and English Linguistics is based on a cooperation between the German and English departments at Leibniz Universität Hannover. The bilingual concept and implementation of the degree programme is innovative.
This site contains a basic overview of the German language for English-speaking students.
Unlike most similar content on the Web, everything here is original, ad-free, cleanly formatted and easy to print. In English the terms Germanistics or Germanics are sometimes used (mostly by Germans), but the subject is more often referred to as German studies, German language and literature, or German philology.
Modern German studies is usually seen as a combination of two sub-disciplines: German linguistics and Germanophone literature studies.
Important areas of German Studies include German linguistics with the structure of the German language, medieval language, and literature and ist specific historical contexts within the framework of German medieval studies and modern German literature (read and understand literary texts, and present the findings gained in a scientific form).
The differences between English and German. Introduction: German is spoken by about 95 million people worldwide, and is the official language of Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland.
English and German both belong to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.