As the American combat mission in Iraq comes to end, the Obama administration and Pentagon officials have repeatedly assured the world that American involvement with Iraq will continue. They are undoubtedly right. This month, Peter Hahn, an expert on the history of U. Read more on Iraq and the Middle East:
Old Conflict, New Weapons http: The usual replies focus on either of two factors: The essay looks at this dispute pre- and post- World War I, showing the many complications and passions concerning this vital waterway.
Two aspects of the Iraq-Iran conflict are easy to explain: Except for official Iraqi spokesmen, there is nearly universal agreement that Iraq initiated hostilities on Sep. In each case, Iran merely responded to Iraqi initiatives.
September is the right season for an infantry assault, and in late both superpowers had focused their attention elsewhere Afghanistan and Poland in the case of the Soviet Union, the Iranian hostage crisis and presidential elections in the U.
It was also a time when the Iranians seemed least capable of defending themselves. One and a half years after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returned triumphantly to Tehran, the revolution had frayed: Morale plummeted, discipline eroded, and troops deserted as the armed forces fell into deep disfavor under Khomeini.
The mullahs purged officers, canceled weapons purchases, terminated military privileges, and established a rival force that was loyal to them the Pasdaran, or Revolutionary Guards.
Thus, Iraqi leaders had many reasons to attack when they did. But why did the Iraqis attack? What made it worth risking oil facilities, wide international disapproval, loss of revenues, and domestic unrest? Assuming Saddam Husayn is not one to act rashly or foolishly - even critics acknowledge his pragmatism - one must conclude that he had serious reasons for making war in September Most analysts stress two factors: For instance, the Levant correspondent for The Economist wrote: The origins of the present hostilities between Iraq and Iran can be traced all the way back to the battle of Qadisiya in southern Iraq in A.
But this is nonsense, and for two reasons. The regimes in Baghdad and Tehran need to motivate their troops, so they hark back to historic conflicts. There is no reason, however, to make these inspirational messages as factors in the outbreak of war. Second, as Narayanan Balakrishnan of the New Nation Singaporehas shown, "nothing delights journalists more than looking for historical parallels to current events.
Nothing like a dash of history to add profundity to a mundane current event; it seems to be the current journalistic dictum. It is no accident that historical generalizations are made more often about the developing countries than about Europe.
It is not that the French and Germans have a special gift for forgetting the past 80 years, whereas the Sunnis and Shias cannot forget grudges from 12 centuries ago.
Few foreign correspondents - and even fewer Western readers - are aware that the history of Asia is also a many-headed hydra, like the history of Europe, and that it can be used to justify almost anything.
That is why the Iraq-Iran conflict is more likely to be explained in terms of Shia-Sunni conflict than as the ideological, economic and territorial dispute that it is, whereas the French-German conflicts are explained in terms of common agricultural policy of the EEC without recourse to the events of the two world wars.
Indeed, many differences do separate Iraq and Iran, but their many common elements should also be kept in mind. Both countries are heirs to a shared legacy going back five millennia; both had vital roles in the ancient culture of the Middle East; both fell to Alexander the Great while escaping Roman rule; and both succumbed to Arabian conquerors around A.
Iraq and Iran had disproportionately large roles in shaping Muslim civilization, contributing some of its greatest figures, its most splendid cities, and its key institutions.
Populations in both countries converted massively to Islam and today less than 10 percent of their citizens remain non-Muslim. Kurdish and Turkic minorities are numerous and powerful.
Both are republics that obtained power through the spectacular repudiation of monarchs:Oct 06, · Chichimeca War () – The Chichimeca war was one of many wars fought during the Spanish conquest of the Aztec civilization in modern day Mexico. World War I () – Extreme loyalty and patriotism caused many countries to become involved in the first world war.
Many pre-war Europeans believed in the cultural, economic and military supremacy of their urbanagricultureinitiative.coms: The war also left Iraq as one of the largest military establishments in the Persian Gulf region (U.S. Department of State).
In Iraq invaded Kuwait but it was forced out in early by a United States-led U.N. coalition. GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS BEHIND THE IRAQ WAR A PAPER BY SAPEO GARDNER Geographic Factors Behind The Iraq War Many people have seen this war between Iraq and Kuwait as the starting point of everything that has been going on in the recent years between the United States and Iraq.
Aug 07, · Have Fun with this awesome HD Documentary about the Marines in Afghanistan. Enjoy! 2nd Episode of Battleground Afghanistan!
Have Fun and Enjoy. Iraq: A War For Israel By Mark Weber The U.S. bombing and invasion of Iraq in March-April , and the occupation that followed, cost more than four thousand American lives and hundreds of billions of dollars, and brought death to many tens of thousands of Iraqis.
With United States forces also engaged in a war in Iraq starting in , the American public became increasingly war weary.
Through , the U.S. government spent over billion dollars on the.