Jump to navigation Jump to search This article is about chemical reactions resulting in the loss of water from a molecule. For the removal of water from solvents and reagents, see Desiccation. In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule. Dehydration reactions are a subset of condensation reactions.
Lipids Video transcript - [Voiceover] In the previous video, we talked about the importance of glucose as a simple sugar. We talked about its molecular structure. What I wanna do in this video is study how glucose can be, how we can use it as a building block for more complex sugars and more complex carbohydrates.
So this right over here, I've copy and pasted two glucose molecules, we can Dehydration synthesis their carbons. This is one, two, three, four, five, six.
One, two, three, four, five, six. We have them in their cyclic form. And what we're going to do is explore what would happen if this oxygen right over here, I'll highlight it in this magenta color, were to use one of its lone pairs, one of its lone pairs, to do, what's in organic chemistry, referred to as a nucleophilic attack on the number one carbon on the left-hand glucose molecule.
And the reason why that could happen is this number one carbon right over here, it's attached to two oxygens. Oxygens are very electronegative, they like to hog electrons when they're in a covalent bond.
So that's gonna give this carbon a partially positive charge. And this oxygen is very Dehydration synthesis. It's gonna hog the electrons from this hydrogen and the number four carbon on the right-hand glucose molecule, so it's gonna have a partially negative charge.
And so it is going to be nucleophilic. It's going to be attracted to, I guess you could say, the carbon nucleus, to the partially positive charge right over here, and so as it does, it's gonna use a lone pair to form a bond.
It's gonna share it with the carbon, and then the carbon can let go of another bond. So it could let go of, it could let go of both of these electrons in that bond.
Now you could say maybe that just goes back to the oxygen and it forms a hydroxide anion. Or we could imagine, well, maybe it'll be used, maybe it forms a hydroxide anion first, or maybe that bond immediately goes and picks up a hydrogen ion out of the solution from another, from a hydronium ion sitting someplace.
So this could be used to form a bond with this hydrogen ion, which is really, this is just a proton here. You take an electron away from hydrogen, it's just going to be a proton.
Well, what's that going to do? Well, that's going to link these two glucose molecules. And it's gonna link it just like this, and it's important to keep track of our molecules here.
So this oxygen is now going to be this oxygen.
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It's now going to be that oxygen. This bond between the number four carbon on the right-hand side of that oxygen is this bond right over here. This, where we took this electron pair to form this bond with the number one carbon, that is, let me do it in that magenta color.
That is this bond, this bond right over here. The oxygen, this oxygen, is now this oxygen right over here. And this electron pair is now formed a bond with this hydrogen, so we could say, oh, that could be, let me do that blue, that could be, that could be this bond right over here.
Now the one difference is, based on how I've drawn it, this oxygen, or sorry, this oxygen, the way I've drawn it, it's attached to the number one carbon here, the number four carbon here.
We have that over, we've already done that over here. Number one carbon on the left molecule, number four carbon on the right molecule. But we also have it bonded, we also have it bonded to a hydrogen.
So just the way I've done it right now, it's still bonded to a hydrogen. It's going to have a net positive charge. Over here, it was neutral. It was neutral right over here, but then it's now sharing its electrons. It's now sharing both of those electrons in a covalent bond, and so you can think of it as it's giving away an electron to this carbon, so it's going to have a net positive charge.
But then to get back to neutral, you could imagine, well, maybe some type of a water molecule could grab that ion, so maybe this one right over here. This one right over here could grab that hydrogen, and then these electrons, both of them, and it would just grab the hydrogen nucleus of the proton, and so these two electrons could go back to this oxygen and then this oxygen would become neutral.
And so what we would be left with, actually, let me just erase this, is that this hydrogen would now be attached to this oxygen, and we would have a hydronium ion.
And this is reasonable. We essentially had some hydronium.Dehydration synthesis is classified as a type of chemical reaction. A chemical reaction is the process where chemical substances called reactants transform into new substances called products.
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The mechanochemical process, controlled precipitation, sol-gel method, solvothermal and . In chemistry, dehydration synthesis is defined as a type of chemical reaction, which produces water molecules after combining the reactants. For such a process to . Effects of Dehydration.
The effects of dehydration begin with thirst and progress to more alarming effects as the need for water becomes more critical. A dehydration synthesis reaction involving un-ionized moners In the dehydration synthesis reaction between two molecules of glucose, a hydroxyl group from the first glucose is combined with a hydrogen from the second glucose, creating a covalent bond that links the two monomeric sugars (monosaccharides) together to form the dissacharide maltose.