Four sector model studies the circular flow in an open economy which comprises of the household sector, business sector, government sector, and foreign sector. The foreign sector has an important role in the economy. When the domestic business firms export goods and services to the foreign markets, injections are made into the circular flow model. On the other hand, when the domestic households, firms or the government imports something from the foreign sector, leakage occurs in the circular flow model.
An introduction to U. The Circular-Flow Diagram One model that helps explain how a market economy works is a circular-flow diagram.
A circular-flow diagram is a visual model of the economy that illustrates how households and businesses interact through markets for products and markets for resources. A simple circular-flow diagram is illustrated in Figure 1.
The two types of economic agents in a simple market economy are households and business firms. A household is a social unit comprised of those living together in the same dwelling. A business or business firm is a company that produces goods or services, usually in an effort to make a profit.
Profit is revenues minus expenses. Revenues are the monetary income received by a business in exchange for goods or services. Expenses are the total costs of the production of goods or services by a business.
Households interact with business firms it two distinct ways: The first type of interaction occurs in markets for resources. The second type of interaction occurs in markets for products. The top half of the circular-flow diagram, which represents product markets, shows that households give money to businesses in exchange for goods and services.
Money flows counterclockwise, while the goods and services flow clockwise. In markets for products, businesses usually are the suppliers and households usually are the demanders.
The money that flows from households to business firms is consumption spending from the perspective of households and is revenue from the perspective of business firms.
The products that flow from business firms to households are sales by the business firms and purchases by household consumers. The bottom half of the circular-flow diagram, which represents resource markets, shows that businesses give money to households in exchange for economic resources used as factors of production.
For example, when people work for a business, they are supplying their labor as a factor of production. In exchange for their labor, households are paid wages and salaries by businesses. This is illustrated by the counterclockwise flow of money and the clockwise flow of economic resources.[message] Interest On house Loan and Income tax ; Interest on Pre-Construction period on house loan -calculation and deduction available in income tax.
Circular Ventures In a circular economy, the most interesting opportunities may lie between organisations.
Tapping into them will require a collaborative approach. The role of constructed wetlands in a new circular economy, resource oriented, and ecosystem services paradigm. Examples of price discrimination abound. Senior citizens and students are often offered discount fares on city buses.
Children receive discount prices for movie theater tickets and entrance fees at zoos and theme parks. Welcome to Insights IAS Revision Plan for UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Exam – If you are wondering why these questions are posted, please refer to the detailed Timetable provided HERE.. These questions serve TWO purposes: One to test your revision skills; Second is to give you a glimpse into topics that you might have missed .
The circular flow of income forms the basis for all models of the macro-economy, and understanding the circular flow process is key to explaining how national income, output .