Many others have treated this subject, but Machiavelli bases his observations on the real world, not on an imagined ideal. There is so much difference between the way people should act and the way they do act that any prince who tries to do what he should will ruin himself. A prince must know when to act immorally.
Venice, Genoa, and Milan grew rich on commerce between and Florence, where the Renaissance originated, was an important banking center by the fourteenth century. Communes and Republics In northern Italy the larger cities won independence from local nobles and became self-governing communes of free men in the twelfth century.
Local nobles moved into the cities and married into wealthy merchant families. This new class set up property requirements for citizenship. The excluded, the popolo, rebelled and in some cities set up republics. By the republics had collapsed, and despots or oligarchies governed most Italian cities.
City patriotism and constant competition for power among cities prevented political centralization on the Italian peninsula. As cities strove to maintain the balance of power among themselves, they invented the apparatus of modern diplomacy. Intellectual Change Humanism The revival of antiquity took the form of interest in archaeology, recovery of ancient manuscripts, and study of the Latin classics.
Humanists studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Humanism emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Interest in human achievements led humanists to emphasize the importance of the individual and individualism. Humanists derided what they viewed as the debased Latin of the medieval churchmen. Education Humanists placed heavy emphasis on education and moral behavior. Humanists opened schools and academies throughout Italy.
They were ambivalent about education for women. Starting with assumptions about human nature, Machiavelli outlined a vision of power that rested on a realistic understanding of the political environment. Renaissance thinkers came to see life as an opportunity rather than a painful pilgrimage toward God.
Lorenzo Valla argued that sense pleasures were the highest good. Giovanni Boccaccio wrote about an acquisitive, sensual, worldly society. Renaissance popes expended much money on new buildings, a new cathedral St.
Christian Humanism Christian humanists in northern Europe interpreted Italian ideas in the context of their own traditions.
Christian humanists were interested in an ethical way of life. Utopia by Thomas More — described an ideal socialistic community.
Erasmus — was the leading Christian humanist of his era. Printing with movable metal type developed in Germany in the middle of the fifteenth century. Increased urban literacy, the development of primary schools, and the opening of new universities expanded the market for printed materials.
Art and the Artist Art and Power In the early Renaissance, corporate groups such as guilds sponsored religious art. By the late fifteenth century, individual princes, merchants, and bankers sponsored art to glorify themselves and their families.
Their urban palaces were full of expensive furnishings as well as art. Subjects and Style Classical themes, individual portraits, and realistic style characterized Renaissance art. Renaissance artists invented perspective and portrayed the human body in a more natural and scientific manner than previous artists did.
Art produced in northern Europe in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries tended to be more religious in orientation than that produced in Italy. Rome and Venice rose to artistic prominence in the sixteenth century.
Renaissance artists were seen as intellectual workers.Chapter Review Outlines; DBQ Resources; European History > Chapter Review Outlines Chapter 13 - European Society in the Age of the Renaissance: Chapter 13 - European Society in the Age of the Renaissance Chapter 14 - Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church: Chapter 14 - Reform and Renewal in the Christian Church Chapter 15 - The Age of.
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Much of the Renaissance art and education was funded and supported in, ruled by. Nov 01, · Can you pick the Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 15 Test your knowledge on this miscellaneous quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others.
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Chapter 15 Study Guide AP US History The Ferment of Reform and Culture, Theme: The spectacular religious revivals of the Second Great Awakening reversed a trend toward secular rationalism in American culture, and helped to fuel a spirit of social reform.
Below you will find notes for the 16th edition of the A.P. U.S. History textbook, The American urbanagricultureinitiative.com edition was released in , and it covers history in the United States from 33, B.C. to .