The criminal justice system also takes into account the factors influencing juvenile crime, some of which include, peer pressure and socioeconomic status, and as a result, promote the initiation of numerous situational and social crime prevention strategies, to reduce the risk of young people being involved in criminal activity. Youth justice conferences, is an effective alternate method of punishment and rehabilitation, which is outlined in the Young Offenders Act NSW.
Abstract The purpose of this research synthesis was to examine treatment effects across studies of the service providers to offenders with mental illness. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to 26 empirical studies obtained from a review of 12, research documents.
Outcomes of interest in this review included measures of both psychiatric and criminal functioning. Furthermore, interventions specifically designed to meet the psychiatric and criminal justice needs of offenders with mental illness have shown to produce significant reductions in psychiatric and criminal recidivism.
Finally, this review highlighted admission policies and treatment strategies e. Results of this research synthesis are directly relevant for service providers in both criminal justice and mental health systems e. In addition, the implications of these results to policy makers tasked with the responsibility of designating services for this special needs population are highlighted.
Of greatest concern to mental health professionals working with offenders with mental illness OMIand compounding the problem for correctional administrators, are the findings that PMI have been incarcerated at disproportionately increasing rates over the last ten years e.
The clinical picture in American jails is even more disconcerting note that jails incarcerate individuals awaiting trial or convicted of less serious offensesas local jails have superseded mental health facilities as providers of mental health treatment. With these shifts in placement of PMI, treatment efforts for OMI have been unable to keep pace with the incarceration rates in state and federal jail and prison facilities.
In fact, the U. When services are warranted, there remains a dearth of empirical research guiding effective treatment strategies for OMI. Thus, clinicians treating OMI do so without sufficient efficacy or effectiveness data on which to base their practices.
Consequently, clinicians are left searching for the most effective correctional treatment and rehabilitative methods for incarcerated OMI to alleviate suffering e. There is convincing evidence that correctional interventions are superior to sanctioned approaches e.
In addition to identifying what works, research has also demonstrated what does not work. Less effective treatment strategies include purely psychodynamic and non-directive therapies, approaches designed to better understand the offender e.
Furthermore, program characteristics that are ineffective for reducing criminal recidivism include increasing self-esteem without simultaneous reduction in criminogenic need areas, focusing on affective domains that have not been linked with criminal conduct, increasing cohesiveness of antisocial peer groups, increasing conventional ambition e.
Furthermore, although we have developed an understanding of what constitutes effective interventions, we know little about the mechanisms of change and how appropriate treatments work to reduce recidivism Skeem et al.
In spite of the growing understanding of effective intervention strategies for reducing recidivism with non-mentally disordered offenders, the R—N—R model and subsequent therapeutic strategies have yet to be empirically investigated with OMI.
Furthermore, it is impractical to suggest that merely applying correctional strategies that work for non-mentally ill offenders to OMI will result in similar treatment gains.
Thus, empirical research identifying effective interventions and treatment strategies for OMI is needed. Psychiatric rehabilitation encourages PMI referred to as consumers as the individual is responsible for ensuring they receive the services needed to achieve recovery to develop their fullest capacities through learning and environmental supports Bachrach, The goal of psychiatric rehabilitation is to enable individuals to live independently by compensating for, or eliminating, functional deficits IAPSRS, Psychiatric rehabilitation includes a myriad of social and educational services and supportive community interventions to help consumers achieve improved functioning including greater levels of independence.
Although there are a variety of services available for PMI e. Collaborative psychopharmacology—few would argue that psychotropic medications do not effectively help reduce symptoms of mental illness, and outcomes are improved when consumers are included in the medication decision-making formula i.
Assertive community treatment—provision of services to consumers in their natural environment e. Family psychoeducation—educate family members about mental illness and effects of mental illness, enhance interpersonal relations, and foster a supportive support system.
Supported employment—work with PMI to gain competitive employment and provide assistance as needed, regarding skill development and employment maintenance for job security. Illness management and recovery—help consumers assume responsibility for their recovery such that they can manage their illness, seeking assistance as needed to obtain personally meaningful and satisfying life goals.Policies for the Jurisdiction of the Law, Criminal Justice and Public Safety Committee.
Below are the policies of the NCSL Standing Committee on Law, Criminal Justice and Public Safety.
Female sex offenders receive lighter sentences for the same crimes than males says a study recently published in Feminist Criminology, a SAGE journal and the official journal of the Division on. The Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) helps employers make safer recruitment decisions on more than four million people every year.
DBS is an executive non-departmental public body, sponsored.
1 The Myth of a Fair Criminal Justice System Introduction The word fair is defined by Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary () as “marked by impartiality and honesty. The treatment of juveniles within the criminal justice systems is a matter of great variety in the 11 European countries studied comparatively.
Reentry Central is the national website for news and information on the subject of reentry and related criminal justice issues.