We must therefore accept it without complaint when they sometimes collide with a bit of reality against which they are dashed to pieces.
Mallove Sigmund Freud "cooked" data and launched the pseudo-scientific psychoanalysis movement, contends historian of science Dr. Sulloway in a paper that he delivered at the AAAS annual meeting last month.
An expert on Freud, whose book Freud, Biologist of the Mind: Beyond the Psychoanalytic Legend Basic, won the prestigious Pfizer Award of the History of Science Society inSulloway has extended his earlier views in light of his more recent historical research.
He says, "The supreme irony is that Freud developed concepts like censorship and repression and clinical attempts to overcome their supposedly pathogenic effects through psychotherapy. In fact, the history of Freud's movement illustrates these general distorting tendencies--censorship and repression--with a clarity and tendentiousness that are frankly extraordinary in the history of science.
Sulloway's view has the distortion been only in Freud's legend. He says, "Freud's case histories are rampant with censorship, distortions, highly dubious 'reconstructions,' and exaggerated claims.
Moreover, Freud's choice of cases to publish is highly unusual. Sulloway, of Freud's six principal case histories, one involved a patient who fled therapy in disgust after only three months, two were not actually treated by him, and another involved no real therapy. Of the patients actually treated by Freud, only two involved purported cures, claims Sulloway.
It wasn't easy for Sulloway to get to the truth about these cases, because, as he says, "The destruction of history was an essential part of becoming and remaining a great hero in the eyes of posterity. Freud actively cultivated the 'unknowable' about himself in order to set himself apart from the nonheroic component of humanity.
His followers also decreed that some correspondence could not be seen until sometime in the 21st and 22nd centuries. Why did Freud publish seemingly fraudulent case histories?
Rather, the case histories served other crucial functions, including Freud's progressive substitution of rhetoric for evidence and his efforts to induce readers, including patients, to abandon 'resistance' to his theories," says Dr.
Sulloway notes that Freud believed that psychoanalysis could never be learned simply from published case histories. As Freud increasingly argued, to learn psychoanalysis required a personal analysis. Psychoanalytic education increasingly took shelter within privately controlled institutes.
Ultimately, Freud's decision to privatize and socially construct the analytic training process reflects serious methodological shortcomings inherent in psychoanalysis itself," claims Sulloway.
Sulloway's earlier work on Freud, he says, "emphasized the insufficiently appreciated continuity between Freud's earlier career as a biologist and neurophysiologist.
Sulloway's recent paper on Freud will be published in the June issue of the journal of the history of science, Isis. Sulloway has also written extensively on the life of Charles Darwin and is engaged in a major study of revolutionary temperament in science.
Inhe was awarded a five-year MacArthur Fellowship.Dream analysis is a therapeutic technique best known for its use in psychoanalysis. Sigmund Freud viewed dreams as “the royal road” to the unconscious and developed dream analysis, or dream.
Sigmund Freud: Freud developed the psychoanalytic theory of personality development, which argued that personality is formed through conflicts among three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego.
Psychoanalysis definition is - a method of analyzing psychic phenomena and treating emotional disorders that involves treatment sessions during which the patient is encouraged to talk freely about personal experiences and especially about early childhood and dreams.
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Sigmund Freud was one of the prominent psychoanalysts that emerged from Europe in the early 20th century.
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