References and Further Reading 1. Of those assembled, only one disciple Mahakashyapa Sanskrit: Eventually the transmission passed to a certain Bodhidharma c.
Periodisation[ edit ] The history of Chan in China can be divided into several periods. Chan as we know it today is the result of a long history, with many changes and contingent factors.
Each period had different types of Chan, some of which have remained influential, while others vanished. Little written information is left from this period. The split occurred between the Northern and the Southern School.
The Literary period, from around to which spans the era of the Song Dynasty — Monks compiled collections of gongansayings and deeds by the famous masters, appended with poetry and commentary. This genre reflects the influence of literati on the development of Chan. People from this time idealized the previous period as the "golden age" of Chan, producing the literature that portrays the supposed spontaneity of the celebrated masters.
Although McRae has reservations about the division of Chan's history in phases or periods,  he nevertheless distinguishes four phases in the history of Chan: It was based on the practice of dhyana, and is connected to the figures of Bodhiharma and Huike.
Prime figures are the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren —his dharma-heir Yuquan Shenxiu ? Main factions were the Hongzhou school and the Hubei faction [note 1] An important text is the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hallwhich gives a great amount of "encounter stories", and the well-known genealogy of the Chan school.
Key figures were Dahui Zonggao —who introduced the Hua Tou practice, and Hongzhi Zhengjue —who emphasized shikantaza. Main factions were the Linji school and the Caodong school.
Classic koan collections, such as the Blue Cliff Recordwere assembled  and reflect the influence of the literati on the development of Chan. Neither Ferguson nor McRae gives a periodisation for Chinese Chan after the Song Dynasty, though McRae mentions "at least a post-classical phase or perhaps multiple phases".
Theories about the influence of other schools in the evolution of Chan vary widely and heavily reliant upon speculative correlation rather than on written records or histories.
Buddhism was exposed to Confucian  and Taoist   influences when it came to China. Suzuki[note 3] calling Chan a "natural evolution of Buddhism under Taoist conditions".
Buddha was seen as a foreign immortal who had achieved some form of Daoist nondeath. The Buddhists' mindfulness of the breath was regarded as an extension of Daoist breathing exercises. As the philosophy and practice infiltrated society, many traditionalists banded together to stop the foreign influence, not so much out of intolerance an attitude flatly rejected by both Taoism and Confucianismbut because they felt that the Chinese world view was being turned upside down.
The training in virtue and discipline in the precepts Skt. It was in this context that Buddhism entered into Chinese culture. Three types of teachers with expertise in each training practice developed: Monasteries and practice centers were created that tended to focus on either the Vinaya and training of monks or the teachings focused on one scripture or a small group of texts.
The later naming of the Zen school has its origins in this view of the threefold division of training. McRae goes so far as to say: Chan was not nearly as separate from these other types of Buddhist activities as one might think [ The reader should bear this point in mind: In contrast to the independent denominations of Soto and Rinzai that emerged largely by government fiat in seventeenth-century Japan, there was never any such thing as an institutionally separate Chan "school" at any time in Chinese Buddhist history emphasis McRae.
When they gathered together, the Buddha was completely silent and some speculated that perhaps the Buddha was tired or ill.
The Buddha silently held up and twirled a flower and his eyes twinkled; several of his disciples tried to interpret what this meant, though none of them were correct. First six patriarchs c. Only scarce historical information is available about him, but his hagiography developed when the Chan tradition grew stronger and gained prominence in the early 8th century.
By this time a lineage of the six ancestral founders of Chan in China was developed.Huineng (Hui-neng) (—) Huineng a seminal figure in Buddhist urbanagricultureinitiative.com is the famous “Sixth Patriarch” of the Chan or meditation tradition, which is better known in Japanese as "Zen").
The text centers on teachings and stories ascribed to the sixth Chan patriarch Huineng. It contains the well-known story of the contest for the succession of Hongren (enlightenment by the non-abiding), and discourses and dialogues attributed to Huineng. The teachings of Zen include various sources of literature and, to a lesser extent, Madhyamaka have also been influential in the shaping of the "paradoxical language" of the Zen-tradition.
Etymology. The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of Look up zen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. thezensite; Zen Buddhism WWW.
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Replete with illustrative scenarios and topics for discussion and writing/5(4).
Look at the territory of the house of Tang — Chan began to be mixed with Pure Land Buddhism as in the teachings of Zhongfeng Mingben (–). [citation unobstructed by the oppositions and differentiations of language. Answering a koan requires a student to let go of conceptual thinking and of the logical way we order the world.
The Platform Sutra occupies a central place in Zen (Ch’an) However, unlike the other sutras, which transcribe the teachings of the Buddha himself, The Platform Sutra presents the life and work of Hui-neng, the controversial sixth patriarch of Zen, and his understanding of the fundamentals of a spiritual and practical life.