In Arabic, it is called Jumhuriyat as-Sudan, or simply as-Sudan. There is strong animosity between the two groups and each has its own culture and traditions.
See Article History Alternative Titles: For more than a century, Sudan—first as a colonial holding, then as an independent country—included its neighbour South Sudanhome to many sub-Saharan African ethnic groups.
MeroePyramids at Meroe, Sudan. Islam and the Arabic language achieved ascendancy in many northern parts of the region, while older African languages and cultures predominated in the south. The country became independent in and has had numerous changes in government since then.
Successive regimes found it difficult to win general acceptance from the diverse political constituencies. An early conflict arose between those northern leaders who hoped to impose unity upon the nation through the vigorous extension of Islamic law and culture to all parts of the country and those who opposed this policy; the latter included the majority of southerners and those northerners who favoured a secular government.
From until there prevailed a costly and divisive civil war, fought largely in the south but punctuated by violent incidents in the north.
The Addis Ababa Agreement of ended the conflict only temporarily, and in the civil war resumed. Attempts to end the civil war included numerous discussions, cease-fires, and agreements but yielded very little success untilwhen the Comprehensive Peace Agreement ended the warfare.
It also granted southern Sudan semiautonomous status and stipulated that a referendum on independence for the south would be held in six years. The results of the vote, held in Januarywere overwhelmingly in favour of independence, and South Sudan was declared an independent country on July 9, It is part of the largest urban area in Sudan and is a centre of commerce as well as of government.
Mohy el Din Sabr Jay L. Physical features of Sudan. Relief Sudan is mainly composed of vast plains and plateaus that are drained by the Nile River and its tributaries. This river system runs from south to north across the entire length of the east-central part of the country.
This plain can be divided into a northern area of rock desert that is part of the Sahara ; the western Qawz, an area of undulating sand dunes that merges northward into the rock desert; and a central-southern clay plain.
Most of northern Sudan is a sand- or gravel-covered desert, diversified by flat-topped mesas of Nubian sandstone and islandlike steep-sided granite hills. The western plain is composed primarily of Nubian sandstones, which form a dissected plateau region with flat-topped mesas and buttes.
The volcanic highlands of the Marrah Mountains rise out of the Darfur Plateau farther west to elevations between approximately 3, and 10, feet and 3, metres above sea level.
These mountains form the Nile-Congo watershed and the western boundary of the clay plain. In northeastern Sudan the Red Sea Hills region is an uplifted escarpment.
The scarp slope facing the Red Sea forms rugged hills that are deeply incised by streams.
The escarpment overlooks a narrow coastal plain that is 10 to 25 miles 16 to 40 km wide and festooned with dunes and coral reefs. Farther south the eastern uplands constitute the foothills of the Ethiopian highland massif. Drainage and soils The Nile River system is the dominant physical feature, and all streams and rivers of Sudan drain either into or toward the Nile.
The Nile River basin and its drainage network. The surface of the deserts in the north and northeast are either bare rock, a mantle of bare waste, or sandy expanses of mobile dunes known as ergs. In the semiarid zone of north-central Sudan, the layer of rock waste is slightly modified to form immature soils; in the Qawz region, soils are brownish red and of low fertility.
The alkaline soils of the south-central plain are heavy cracking clays. Climate In northernmost Sudan, northerly winds prevail for most of the year, and rainfall is rare. To the south of this the seasons are characterized by the north-south oscillation of the boundary between moist southerly air and dry northerly air.
In winter the north winds of the tropical air mass blow across Sudan. These winds are relatively cool and dry and usually bring no rain. Sometime around May, the moist southerly air of the southern maritime air mass moves northward across the country.
Because of this, central and southern Sudan have rainy seasons, the total lengths of which vary according to their latitude. Sudan is a hot country. The central and eastern areas have the highest mean annual temperatures, typically ranging from the mids to mids F mids to low 40s C.
In the west and northwest of the country, the highest mean temperatures generally range from the mids to mids F low to mids C. The highest temperatures normally occur just before the rainy season. The mean minimum temperatures in most of the country range from the high 60s to high 70s F low to mids C ; in the west and northwest, mean minimum temperatures are a little lower, ranging from the high 50s to high 60s F mids to low 20s C.Sudan: Sudan, country located in northeastern Africa.
The name Sudan derives from the Arabic expression bilād al-sūdān (“land of the blacks”), by which medieval Arab geographers referred to the settled African countries that began at the southern edge of the Sahara.
For more than a century, Sudan—first as. The history of Sudan includes that of both the territory that composes Republic of the Sudan as well as that of a larger region known by the term "Sudan".The term is derived from Arabic: بلاد السودان bilād as-sūdān, or "land of the black people", and can be used more loosely of West and Central Africa in general, especially the Sahel.
South Sudan, also called Southern Sudan, country located in northeastern urbanagricultureinitiative.com rich biodiversity includes lush savannas, swamplands, and rainforests that are home to many species of wildlife.
Prior to , South Sudan was part of Sudan, its neighbour to the urbanagricultureinitiative.com Sudan’s population, predominantly African cultures who tend to adhere to . Sudan Table of Contents.
The public and private education systems inherited by the government after independence were designed more to provide civil servants and professionals to serve the colonial administration than to educate the Sudanese.
South Sudan's President Salva Kiir is welcomed by supporters on his return from peace talks in Kampala, at the Juba Airport, South Sudan July 9, The Situation.
To this day, the Sudanese government continues its long-standing policy of attacking innocent civilians. In addition to the ongoing crisis in Darfur, forces under the command of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir have carried out attacks against civilians in the disputed Abyei territory, and South Kordofan and Blue Nile States.